Selasa, 01 April 2008

Dictionary for Titan Arum

Noun 1. amorphophallus - any plant of the genus Amorphophallus

By Wordnet Dictionary

amorphophallus: n. 1. any plant of the genus Amorphophallus.

By Webster Dictionary

Amorphophallus titanum
Giant Arum (Amorphophallus titanum)
Scientific classification

See text

Amorphophallus is a large genus of some 170 tropical tuberous herbaceous plants from the Arum family (Araceae).

These are typical lowland plants, growing in the tropical and subtropical zones of the paleotropics, from West Africa to the Pacific Islands. None is found in the Americas. Most species are endemic. They grow preferably on disturbed grounds, such as secondary forests.

These small to massive plants have a globose tuber. From top of this tuber, a single leaf issues, which can be up to 1 m long, followed, on maturity, by a single flower. This leaf consists of a vertical leaf stalk and a horizontal blade, which may consist of a number of small leaflets. The leaf lasts one growing season. The peduncle (= primary flower stalk) can be long or short.

As typical in the Arum family, these species develop an inflorescence consisting of an elongate or ovate spathe (a sheating bract) which usually envelops the spadix (a flower spike with a fleshy axis). The spathe can have different colors, but mostly brownish-purple of whitish-green. On the inside, they contain ridges or warts, functioning as insect traps.

The plants are monoecious. The spadix has tiny flowers : female flowers, no more than a pistil, at the bottom, then male flowers, actually a group of stamens, and then a blank sterile area. This last part, called 'the appendix', consists of sterile flowers, called 'staminodes', and can be especially large. There is no corolla.

Once the spathe opens, pollination must happen the same day. The appendix emits a scent of decaying flesh, attracting insects. Yet a number of species gives off a pleasant odor. Through a number of ingenious insect traps, pollinating insects are kept inside the spathe to deposit pollen on the female flowers. These stay open only one day, while the male flowers are still closed. These open then the next day, but by then the female flowers are no longer receptive. The male flowers shower the trapped insects with pollen. Once the insects escape, they can then pollinate another flower.

The pollinated flowers then develop a globose berry as a fruit. These can be red, orange-red, white, white-and-yellow, blue.

The titan arum, the world's biggest inflorescence, belongs to this genus. It can reach a height of 2.5 m and a width of 1.5 m. A runner-up is Amorphophallus gigas, which is taller, but has a somewhat smaller flower. Amorphophallus konjac tubers are used to make konjaku, a Japanese thickening agent containing glucomannan.

Some species are called voodoo lily, as are some species of Sauromatum (also in the Araceae).

The name 'Amorphophallus' us derived from the Greek words 'amorphos' and 'phallos', meaning 'malformed penis'.


Tiatan Arum - close-up
Tiatan Arum - close-up
  • Amorphophallus aberrans
  • Amorphophallus abyssinicus
    • Amorphophallus abyssinicus subsp. abyssinicus
    • Amorphophallus abyssinicus subsp. akeassii
    • Amorphophallus abyssinicus subsp. unyikae
  • Amorphophallus albispathus
  • Amorphophallus albus
  • Amorphophallus amygdaloides
  • Amorphophallus angolensis
    • Amorphophallus angolensis subsp. angolensis
    • Amorphophallus angolensis subsp. maculatus
  • Amorphophallus angulatus
  • Amorphophallus angustispathus
  • Amorphophallus ankarana
  • Amorphophallus annulifer
  • Amorphophallus antsingyensis
  • Amorphophallus aphyllus
  • Amorphophallus asper
  • Amorphophallus asterostigmatus
  • Amorphophallus atrorubens
  • Amorphophallus atroviridis
  • Amorphophallus barthlottii
  • Amorphophallus baumannii
  • Amorphophallus beccarii
  • Amorphophallus becquaertii
  • Amorphophallus bonaccordensis
  • Amorphophallus borneensis
  • Amorphophallus boyceanus
  • Amorphophallus brachyphyllus
  • Amorphophallus brevispathus
  • Amorphophallus bufo
  • Amorphophallus bulbifer
  • Amorphophallus calabaricus
    • Amorphophallus calabaricus subsp. calabaricus
    • Amorphophallus calabaricus subsp. mayoi
  • Amorphophallus canaliculatus
  • Amorphophallus carneus
  • Amorphophallus chlorospathus
  • Amorphophallus cicatricifer
  • Amorphophallus cirrifer
  • Amorphophallus coaetaneus
  • Amorphophallus commutatus
  • Amorphophallus consimilis
  • Amorphophallus corrugatus
  • Amorphophallus costatus
  • Amorphophallus coudercii
  • Amorphophallus cruddasianus
  • Amorphophallus curvistylis
  • Amorphophallus dactylifer
  • Amorphophallus declinatus
  • Amorphophallus decus-silvae : West-Java Giant Amorphophallus
  • Amorphophallus discophorus
  • Amorphophallus dracontioides
  • Amorphophallus dunnii
  • Amorphophallus dzuii
  • Amorphophilus eburneus
  • Amorphophilus echinatus
  • Amorphophallus eichleri
  • Amorphophallus elatus
  • Amorphophallus elegans
  • Amorphophallus elliottii
  • Amorphophallus excentricus
  • Amorphophallus forbesii
  • Amorphophallus galbra
  • Amorphophallus gallaensis
  • Amorphophallus gigas : Sumatra Giant Amorphophallus
  • Amorphophallus gliruroides
  • Amorphophallus glossophyllus
  • Amorphophallus goetzei
  • Amorphophallus gomboczianus
  • Amorphophallus gracilior
  • Amorphophallus gracilis
  • Amorphophallus haematospadix
  • Amorphophallus harmandii
  • Amorphophallus hayi
  • Amorphophallus henryi : Taiwan Amorphophallus
  • Amorphophallus hetterscheidii
  • Amorphophallus hewittii
  • Amorphophallus hildebrandtii
  • Amorphophallus hirsutus
  • Amorphophallus hirtus
  • Amorphophallus hohenackeri
  • Amorphophallus hottae
  • Amorphophallus impressus
  • Amorphophallus incurvatus
  • Amorphophallus infundibuliformis
  • Amorphophallus interruptus
  • Amorphophallus johnsonii
  • Amorphophallus kachinensis
  • Amorphophallus kiusianus
  • Amorphophallus konjac : Devil's Tongue, Elephant Foot, Elephant-yam, Leopard Palm, Snake Palm, Umbrella Arum
  • Amorphophallus konkanensis
  • Amorphophallus koratensis
  • Amorphophallus krausei
  • Amorphophallus lambii
  • Amorphophallus lanuginosus
  • Amorphophallus laoticus
  • Amorphophallus lewallei
  • Amorphophallus linearis
  • Amorphophallus linguiformis
  • Amorphophallus longicornus
  • Amorphophallus longiconnectivus
  • Amorphophallus longispathaceus
  • Amorphophallus longistylus
  • Amorphophallus longituberosus
  • Amorphophallus luzoniensis
  • Amorphophallus lyratus
  • Amorphophallus macrorhizus
  • Amorphophallus manta
  • Amorphophallus margaritifer
  • Amorphophallus margretae
  • Amorphophallus maximus
    • Amorphophallus maximus subsp. fischeri
    • Amorphophallus maximus subsp. maximus
  • Amorphophallus maxwellii
  • Amorphophallus mekongensis
  • Amorphophallus merrillii
  • Amorphophallus mildbraedii
  • Amorphophallus minor
  • Amorphophallus mossambicensis
  • Amorphophallus muelleri
  • Amorphophallus mullendersii
  • Amorphophallus mysorensis
  • Amorphophallus nanus
  • Amorphophallus napalensis
  • Amorphophallus napiger
  • Amorphophallus nicolsonianus
  • Amorphophallus obovoideus
  • Amorphophallus obscurus
  • Amorphophallus ochroleucus
  • Amorphophallus opertus
  • Amorphophallus paeoniifolius : Whitespot Giant Arum, Elephant Yam
  • Amorphophallus palawanensis
  • Amorphophallus parvulus
  • Amorphophallus paucisectus
  • Amorphophallus pendulus : Brunei Amorphophalus
  • Amorphophallus perakensis
  • Amorphophallus pilosus
  • Amorphophallus plicatus
  • Amorphophallus polyanthus
  • Amorphophallus prainii
  • Amorphophallus preussii
  • Amorphophallus purpurascens
  • Amorphophallus pusillus
  • Amorphophallus putii
  • Amorphophallus pygmaeus
  • Amorphophallus rhizomatosus
  • Amorphophallus richardsiae
  • Amorphophallus rostratus
  • Amorphophallus rugosus
  • Amorphophallus sagittarius
  • Amorphophallus salmoneus
  • Amorphophallus saraburiensis
  • Amorphophallus saururus
  • Amorphophallus scaber
  • Amorphophallus scutatus
  • Amorphophallus sizemorae
  • Amorphophallus sizemorae
  • Amorphophallus smithsonianus
  • Amorphophallus sparsiflorus
  • Amorphophallus spectabilis
  • Amorphophallus staudtii
  • Amorphophallus stipitatus
  • Amorphophallus stuhlmannii
  • Amorphophallus subsymbiformis
  • Amorphophallus sumawongii
  • Amorphophallus sylvaticus
  • Amorphophallus symonianus
  • Amorphophallus synandrifer
  • Amorphophallus taurostigma
  • Amorphophallus tenuispadix
  • Amorphophallus tenuistylis
  • Amorphophallus teuszii
  • Amorphophallus tinekeae
  • Amorphophallus titanum : Titan Arum, Krubi (largest flower on earth)
  • Amorphophallus tonkinensis
  • Amorphophallus variabilis
  • Amorphophallus venustus
  • Amorphophallus verticillatus
  • Amorphophallus yuloensis
  • Amorphophallus yunnanensis : Kerri's Giant Arum
  • Amorphophallus zengianus
  • Amorphophallus zenkeri
    • Amorphophallus zenkeri subsp. mannii
    • Amorphophallus zenkeri subsp. zenkeri


  • Hetterscheid, W.L.A. 1994. Preliminary taxonomy and morphology of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decaisne (Araceae). In: M.M. Serebreyanyi (ed.), Proc. Moscow Aroid Conference 1992: 35-48. Moscow.
  • Hetterscheid, W.L.A. & G.J.C.M. v. Vliet, 1996. Amorphophallus, giant from the forest. CITES/C&M, 2(4): 86-96.
  • Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Amorphophallus, but Were Afraid to Stick Your Nose Into!!!!! by Wilbert Hetterscheid and Stephen Ittenbach - Aroideana 19 :7-129
  • Amorphophallus species with photos (

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "amorphophallus".

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